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Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med. Mar 2022;30(2):185-194. doi: 10.32687/0869-866X-2022-30-2-185-194.
The article presents current trends in the demographic process of reproduction in economically developed countries. Today, the total fertility rate in all European countries is below the minimum required to ensure long-term population reproduction – 2.1 children per woman over her lifetime. According to statistical data, 4.167 million children were born in the EU in 2019, which corresponds to 9.3 births per 1000 inhabitants. In the EU, 1.53 children went to a woman in 2019 (in 2018 – 1.54). The lowest total fertility rates in 2019 were recorded in Malta (1.14), Spain (1.23) and Italy (1.27). In the United States, the decline in the rate of childless women with higher education challenges the well-established observation of a positive relationship between education and infertility. Infertility affects approximately 8-12% of couples worldwide, while in developed countries up to 15% of all couples are infertile. In connection with the problem of the reduction in the birth rate in developed countries, researchers highlight problems such as the increase in the average age of mothers at childbirth (30-35 years and more) and the intervals between labors, the development of subsidiary reproductive technologies, pregnancy outcomes, the health of newborns in the short and long term. The global COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a lack of resources, complexities with supporting medical services related to reproductive health, risks to maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19. However, in fact, there is still no complete picture of the impact of the pandemic on global indices of the demographic process of reproduction.
PMID:35439373 | DOI:10.32687/0869-866X-2022-30-2-185-194